Ending Your VB Program

At some stage, most users want to exit from a program. OK, yours might be a really great program, but unfortunately the user may want to go off and do some-

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thing else—like go home! You have to allow your application to both exit and tidy up before it ends. One advantage you have when building an application in a VBA-hosted environment is that you don't have to worry too much about finishing the program; the majority of the work is taken care of by the host application. You just have to ensure that any object references are cleaned up, and all database connections closed. You can place this type of code in the Close event. VB developers writing executables have to take care of unloading the application themselves, but in most cases this is no more onerous a task than in VBA; this section shows you how.

How to End Your Program

If you specified a form as the startup object, then you must unload this form to close the application. You can do this by including the following statement somewhere in the form, usually in the event handler of an Exit menu option or Exit command button:

Unload Me

If you specified a Sub Main procedure as the startup object, the program terminates when the Sub Main procedure is completed. For example, here's the Sub Main you saw earlier in this chapter:

Sub Main()

Dim oForm as frmStartUp Set oForm = New frmStartUp oForm.Show vbModal Set oForm = Nothing End Sub

Because the form is shown modally, the Sub Main procedure doesn't continue until the form is either hidden—using the statement Me.Hide—or unloaded. Once this happens, program execution is handed back to the Sub Main procedure, which destroys the form object it created by setting the reference to Nothing. When the End Sub statement is executed, the whole application terminates.

If you are writing an ActiveX DLL or EXE, things are slightly different: you shouldn't place any code in your application to terminate the application. The termination should be handled by the operating system. Basically, when all references to your ActiveX component are set to Nothing, your component is unloaded from memory. You should, however, write code to destroy dependent objects in the Terminate event handler of any of your classes that have created dependent objects. You can find further information about this in Chapter 4.

How a Form Unloads

When a form is unloaded from memory, the following chain of events is triggered: QueryUnload

Allows you to cancel the unloading of a form. For example, you could use this event to check whether data in the form has been saved and, if it hasn't, prevent the form from unloading. The QueryUnload event passes a ByRef argument named Cancel to the event handler; if you set this to True, the

24 Chapter 2 - Program Structure unloading of the form is cancelled. This event is ideal for catching those users who insist on closing an application using the Close Window button—the one at the right of the titlebar—instead of using the nice Exit button or the menu option that you provided.

Deactivate

This event is fired as the form loses focus to another form. You have to be careful not to place termination code here, since this event being fired doesn't necessarily mean that the form is being unloaded from memory. If you have an application in which multiple forms are displayed at the same time and any can be selected, the Deactivate event is fired as you move away from one form to another.

Unload

This is the point of no return. From here on, your application is on its way out. Until Version 4 of VB, this was the end of the road. However, in the same way that the Form Load event is now preceded by an Activate event, so the Form Unload event is followed by a Terminate event.

Terminate

This event brings form modules into line with Class modules, and should be used in place of the Unload event. As with the Form Load and Initialize events, you should only use either the form's Unload event or the Terminate event, not both. Use either the Unload or Terminate events to destroy any dependent objects you created during the lifetime of the form.

The End Statement

Visual Basic still supports an End statement, but this is purely for backward compatibility. In general, its use should be discouraged. In particular, its use in class modules and object-based VB applications is highly undesirable, since it has no concept of object cleanup. If you follow the previous procedure, you'll never need the End statement.

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