Cell and Range References

Most formulas reference one or more cells. This reference can be made by using the cell's or range's address or name (if it has one). Cell references come in four styles:

♦ Relative: The reference is fully relative. When the formula is copied, the cell reference adjusts to its new location. Example: A1.

♦ Absolute: The reference is fully absolute. When the formula is copied, the cell reference does not change. Example: $A$1.

♦ Row Absolute: The reference is partially absolute. When the formula is copied, the column part adjusts, but the row part does not change. Example: A$1.

♦ Column Absolute: The reference is partially absolute. When the formula is copied, the row part adjusts, but the column part does not change. Example: $A1.

By default, all cell and range references are relative. To change a reference, you must manually add the dollar signs. Or, when editing a cell in the formula bar, move the cursor to a cell address and press F4 repeatedly to cycle through all four types of cell referencing.

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